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San Jose Scale

U.S. National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs Archive, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org
Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock, 1881 - Adult(s)     
San Jose scale, a major pest of fruit trees, is inconspicuous and usually not noticed until it builds up to large numbers on limbs. Limbs supporting large populations often ooze gum and exhibit rough bark and dieback. Dead leaves adhering to fruit spurs during dormant season indicate the presence of scale. Partially mature nymphs overwinter on limbs and trunks. In spring the nymphs develop into winged male and sessile female scale insects. Female scales have gray circular scale coverings. If the covering is removed, the lemon yellow body beneath can be seen. In May females lay eggs that hatch immediately and the young emerge from under the edge of the adult scale cover. The young crawlers settle on shoots where they feed and become adults or overwinter as partially grown scales. 
San Jose scale can infest branches, shoots, leaves, and fruit. Adults and nymphs suck plant juices and cause considerable damage. They have been known to seriously weaken branches and main scaffold limbs, thus causing permanent injury to mature trees. Crawlers settling on fruit may cause fruit spotting.
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